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Flawed democracy: population shifts

Here's a cheerful thought for you, lifted from Jeffrey Sachs' _The Price of Civilization_.

Say you have some country divided into two states a la the US. The North has 60 people who vote D and 40 who vote R, and South has 60 who vote R and 40 who vote D. Within each region everyone's evenly
distributed, and single-member districts are used, so delegations are uniform. Country is evenly divided, right? North delegation will be D, South R, both of equal size.

Now move 10 random North people to the South, driven by jobs or climate, and evenly distributed within the South. North is now 54-36 D-R, South becomes 46-64. The South now gets more representatives, who are still all R.

The country population is still evenly divided. The South has become slightly more D than it was. But the legislature turns R.

That's US democracy for you. Because while the details are more complicated, there has been a general shift from north to south, probably driven by jobs and weather more than by ideology. When a liberal moves to a conservative state she makes it a bit less conservative, but in the short term she boosts the Congressional power of that state, because it's still majority conservative but has more people.

Needless to say, good proportional representation wouldn't have this problem.

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